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Overpronation

There are three main types of pronation in human gait; neutral pronation, overpronation, and underpronation or supination. While both overpronation and supination occur while walking and standing, they are usually more pronounced and the effects amplified while running.
Who it affects: 

Overpronation can affect runners, usually runners with shoes that are ill-fitting or improperly laced, or shoes that are not designed for long-term running. Shoes have been shown to significantly influence pronation. The same person can have different amounts of pronation just by using different running shoes.

There are many other possible causes for overpronation, but researchers have not yet determined one underlying cause. Overpronation may occur for anatomical reasons or because of muscular weakness or tightness.

Symptoms: 
Those who overpronate tend to push off almost completely from the big toe and second toe. As a result, the shock from the foot’s impact doesn’t spread evenly throughout the foot and the ankle has trouble stabilizing the rest of the body. Additionally, an unnatural angle forms between the foot and ankle and the foot splays out abnormally. It is common even for people who pronate normally to have some angle between the foot and the ankle, but not to the extent seen in those who overpronate. In normal pronation the weight distributes evenly throughout the foot.
Treatment: 

Wearing supportive orthotics in the shoe is a method commonly implemented to treat many common running injuries that are thought to be associated with pronation. According to R.E. Arendse, a researcher at the Sports Science Institute of South Africa and the University of Cape Town, “75.5% of injured runners are successfully treated with the prescription of orthoses." In a study conducted by Gross, Davlin, and Evanski at Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Associate, overpronation and injuries associated with it were the most common reason for diagnosing orthotics. 262 out of the 500 runners involved in the study either had great improvement or complete healing of the injury after wearing the orthotics. An added advantage of orthotics is that they often allow the runner to continue to participate in athletic activity and avoid other treatment options that could be potentially costly and time consuming.

Motion control shoes are a specific type of running shoe designed to limit excessive foot motions. They have been shown to significantly reduce the amount of plantar force (a force generated by excess pronation) when compared to normal footwear used in running. Motion control and stability shoes have increased medial support which may increase stability to the foot and leg and lower the amount of pronation in the foot.

Specific patterns of lacing running shoes have also been shown to help reduce pronation. Marco Hagen, a researcher in the Biomechanics Laboratory at the University of Duisburg-Essen, concludes that, according to his study, when the highest number of eyelets in the shoe is used for lacing and the shoes are tied as tight as possible, pronation is significantly decreased.