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Flat foot

Flat feet (also called pes planus or fallen arches) is a condition in which the arch of the foot collapses, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground.
Who it affects: 
In some individuals (an estimated 20–30% of the general population) the arch simply never develops in one foot or both feet.
Symptoms: 

Most flexible flat feet are asymptomatic, and do not cause pain. In these cases, there is usually no cause for concern, and the condition may be considered a normal human variant. Flat feet were formerly a physical-health reason for service-rejection in many militaries. However, three military studies on asymptomatic adults suggest that persons with asymptomatic flat feet are at least as tolerant of foot stress as the population with various grades of arch. Asymptomatic flat feet are no longer a service disqualification in the U.S. military.

It is generally accepted by professionals that a person with flat feet tends to overpronate in his or her running form. However, people with flat feet may also have a neutral or underpronating gait. Pronation is a natural form of shock absorption during running and walking, when the ankle rolls inward and the weight distribution in the foot shifts medially. Overpronation is excessive pronation; it disrupts the alignment of the leg and may result in injuries due to over-stressing of the knee and leg. With normal, or neutral, running shoes, a person who overpronates in his or her running form may be more susceptible to shin splints, back problems, and tendonitis in the knee.

Treatment: 

Going barefoot, particularly over terrain such as a beach where muscles are given a good workout, is good for all but the most extremely flatfooted, or those with certain related conditions such as plantar fasciitis. One medical study in India with a large sample size of children who had grown up wearing shoes and others going barefoot, found that the longitudinal arches of the barefooters were generally strongest and highest as a group, and that flat feet were less common in children who had grown up wearing sandals or slippers than among those who had worn closed-toe shoes.

Running in shoes with extra medial support or using special shoe inserts, orthoses, may help correct one's running form by reducing pronation and may reduce risk of injury.